There has been an alarming increase in the number of people being diagnosed by diseases be it diabetes, hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. As per WHO report hypertension affects 1.13 billion people all over the world and that increases the chances of stroke. The cardiovascular diseases have affected around 17.8 million people and caused 31% of deaths worldwide. Therefore, these conditions should be addressed at initial stages and curbed so that it doesn’t reach the severity.
Let’s discuss the reasons due to which we could be prone:
Hypertension is a condition when your blood pressure is high, the age group may range from above 40 or between 18 to 39 are at higher risk. It causes damage to the blood vessels that happen over time and most diagnosed when the damage is already caused.
The symptoms associated are:
- Nose bleeding
- Irregular heartbeat
- Buzzing noise in the ear
- Chest pain
- Vision changes
Two types of hypertension are:
1. Primary hypertension:
No particular cause but tends to develop over years.
2. Secondary hypertension:
This type can develop because of various conditions like kidney problems, thyroid, congenital defects, birth control pills, and cocaine.
Risk factors involved are:
- Age – as age increases it is common and mostly by 64 in men and 65 in women develops this.
- Race – most common in the African race
- Family inheritance
- No physical activity
- Consumption of alcohol and smoking – mostly in heavy drinkers
- Using too much salt – potassium helps in maintaining the balance of sodium in the cells, but in the case of hypertension, sodium gets accumulated in the blood.
- Chronic conditions like kidney disease, diabetes, and sleeping problems.
Uncontrolled hypertension is dangerous and associated with many complications like heart attack, weakening of blood vessels, heart failure, damage to kidneys and eyes, and dementia.
Heart diseases are the conditions that affect heart with diseases like coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and congenital heart defects. Types of heart diseases and there causes –
1. Coronary Artery Disease –
It is most common heart problem that is caused by blockage of arteries which supply blood to the heart. It starts as a result of atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries). It gives pain in the chest called angina or leads to heart attack. Risk factors are
- Age (in men after 55 years and in women after menopause)
- Lack of physical activity
- Family history
- High blood pressure
2. Heart Arrhythmias –
Caused due to irregular beating pattern of the heart. The heart beats too quickly, slowly or irregularly. The symptoms are chest pain, short breath, dizziness, syncope, racing or slow heartbeat and light-headedness. The risk factors are the same as that of coronary heart disease.
3. Heart failure –
It is caused when the heart doesn’t pump blood. It occurs usually by coronary heart disease but also can happen due to a thyroid problem, high blood pressure or cardiomyopathy.
4. Heart valve disease –
A defect in the valve can block the blood flow as the valve might not open and close at right time. The symptoms associated are fatigue, irregular heartbeat, chest pain, shortness of breath and syncope. The causes are rheumatic fever, high blood pressure, congenital defect or coronary artery disease. It can also be caused because of few diseases also like endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease.
5. Pericardial disease –
Disease of the pericardium (the sac surrounding the heart). It is caused due to the virus, inflammatory disease (lupus) or injury.
6. Cardiomyopathy –
It is a disease of the myocardium. The muscle gets stretched, thickened or stiff. The causes are genetic heart disease, drugs, and virus.
7. Congenital heart disease –
It occurs when there is a problem in heart formation in a baby that’s in the womb. The defect leads to problems right after birth. Septal defects are most common.
Hypertension and heart disease are interlinked. Lifestyle changes can help in reducing the risk of these diseases. Consult a doctor if you feel pain in chest, fatigue or have any discomfort.